PMA without father and the business of procreation: France will have to buy its sperm abroad

PMA without a father will increase the need for gametes and will therefore raise the ethical issue of purchasing sperm abroad.

Pproposed in the context of the revision of bioethics laws, the opening of medically assisted procreation to all women will inevitably raise the question of the stock of gametes. Today, while the use of a third-party donor represents only 5% of cases of ART, there is already talk of a shortage. With assisted reproduction extended to female couples and single women, the situation would become a “concern” for some professionals.

For Professor Rives, Center for Studies and Conservation of Eggs and Sperm (CECOS), we need 3 to 4 times more donors than we have today.

“We're not sure we'll have enough donors to meet demand. Today, there are around 650 donation candidates for 300 actual donors per year. We estimate that there should be 1000 or 1200 donors per year. "

Faced with this donor deficit, Ludovine de La Rochère, president of La Manif pour Tous, spoke at the microphone of France Info the solutions provided in countries which had extended assisted reproduction to all women.

“All the countries which have extended the assisted reproduction system have ended up either paying men, which is absolutely contrary to French law, or buying gametes from other countries. So how do we guarantee that this will not be the case. What are the guarantees ? What are the means? Who will control? Will the French be able to follow what is going to happen? "

Spokesperson for the Jurists for Children association, Aude Mirkovic noted this inescapable need for donors.

"Do parliamentarians plan to provide their sperm so that their law can be implemented. Does Mr. Macron intend to donate his sperm?" He didn't announce anything anyway. It is you, the citizens, who will be called upon. "

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L'' National Institute of Demographic Studies (INED) evokes this “phenomenon of cross-border appeal". Currently, in the European Union, three countries alone account for nearly 80% of egg donation in the EU. These are Spain, Greece and the Czech Republic. For Élise de la Rochebrochard, research director at INED, this cross-border appeal "raises ethical questions about its organization".

“This very high concentration of donation in a few countries, often small, raises ethical questions about its organization. To meet the demand of the European population, these countries must recruit a large number of donors which cannot be based on the altruism of the local population alone. The donors could then in part be young women in economically fragile situations, motivated by the financial compensation of € 400 to € 2 paid by the centers. "

So, faced with this commodification, the expert wonders.

“Today, this import of gametes is very controlled. Could some centers be tempted by an illegal import? We hope this will not be the case. We do not want to become distributors of sperm, oocyte or embryo straws. In France, assisted reproduction is not a service. Today, in some foreign sperm banks, it is enough to register online to buy sperm. We suggest that future parents choose the donor's level of education, size, eye color… The more the criteria, the more expensive the glitter. This system goes against the best interests of the child. "

From the almost complete PMA for all to the commodification of the body and eugenics, there would seem to be only one step.

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