ow of breathtaking progress in recent years in the field of prostheses and various devices and computer programs designed to overcome disabilities, as here for sight.
From reading stones to glasses:
Vision problems do not date from today. From the Middle Ages, the monks, scholars and scientists of the time, used in a usual way a "reading stone", in reality a glass magnifying glass, which allowed them to enlarge the characters to better read and write. In modern language they thus compensated for presbyopia. The next step, or "bésicles" was a pair of magnifying glasses attached and worn on the nose.
Concave lenses, correctors for myopia, appeared in the 1825th century, then rimmed glasses, as we know them, in the 1857th century. Let us pass quickly on the face to hand, monocles and nose clip, to arrive in XNUMX with the glasses correcting the astigmatism. It was in XNUMX that the glasses with nasal support appeared. After improving comfort, let's move on to design, we are then in the middle of the XNUMXth century.
Figures: According to UFC-Que Choisir, 13 million pairs of glasses were purchased in France in 2012.
From contact lenses to bionic lenses:
It was Leonardo da Vinci who first had the idea of contact lenses! It was in 1508, but his genius idea will not see the light of day until 1887, and their flexible version will not be invented until 1961.
Very recently :
2013: invention of telescopic lenses for zooming an object
2015: invention of the bionic lens which attached to the lens, during a small 8-minute surgery, could correct myopia, presbyopia and astigmatism, multiply vision by three and prevent the appearance of cataracts
And the best for last: a lens that gives sight to the blind!
This bionic lens, associated with a tiny camera implanted in the eye, would allow people who were born blind to SEE!
It is no longer a question of improving what already exists but of creating the capacity to see! Professor Zalevsky, Israeli scientist in charge of the program, makes this comparison "Ofa braille lens that allows blind people to see in a manner similar to reading braille. "
He explains that thehe bionic lens stimulates the corneal nerves in the outer part of the eye, which are connected to areas of the brain that process sensory information. The mini camera has an image compressor and an electrical signal amplifier located outside the patient's body, which can be attached to their glasses. Very high resolution techniques are used to encode an image with a large number of pixels and compress it into a few pixels.
This technology was presented at the conference Biomed in Israel in June 2013.
Note that all these very promising technologies are still at the experimental stage.
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